Adzhyieva L. S.


The article reveals the features of the development of the transport industry and its impact on the economy of the Crimea in 1861-1917. The development of the economy, trade relations, and the resort and tourism sector by the beginning of the study period was hampered by the lack of normal communication routes, a limited number of modes and the cost of transport. Particular attention in the article is paid to the development of transport networks, roads, ports, railway network, as well as tram communication. It is noted that by the middle of the XIX century. On the peninsula, some prerequisites for economic development were formed, migration processes slowed down, and population growth was outlined. However, the Crimean War brought these undertakings to zero and showed the urgent need to transform all spheres of the peninsula’s economy, including the transport one. The expansion and restoration of existing ones, the construction of new roads, including highways, an increase in modes of transport, the active use of maritime transport for the delivery of goods / cargo and passengers by steamships (including for sea trips), the creation of a railway network, the opening of tram services led to positive shifts in the social and economic development of Crimea. The volumes of exports and imports increased, new enterprises were opened, traditional branches of agriculture developed, which received new prospects for selling their products both abroad and on domestic Russian markets. During the First World War, the performance of some industries declined, while others, on the contrary, showed growth. This was due to the peculiarities of Russia’s foreign policy and foreign economic relations. All these processes proceeded in parallel with the establishment of capitalist relations and modernization processes that swept the branches of the peninsula’s economy.

Keywords: transport, economy, port, roads, railroad, tram, Crimea, Russian Empire.

V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, Yevpatoriya Institute of Social Sciences (branch), (Russia)



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